Global Minima by Penalized Full-dimensional Scaling

Abstract

The full-dimensional (metric, Euclidean, least squares) multidimensional scaling stress loss function is combined with a quadratic external penalty function term. The trajectory of minimizers of stress for increasing values of the penalty parameter is then used to find (tentative) global minima for low-dimensional multidimensional scaling. This is illustrated with several one-dimensional and two-dimensional examples.

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